The percentage of the female population aged 25 years and over with tertiary education has increased for all countries of the Mena region, between 1985 and 2010.
In Algeria, women are not represented in 2017, which 15.23 per cent of the labour market. In the present case, the country is leaded by Morocco (24,96 %), Tunisia (24.2 per cent) and Egypt (22,18%), one can read in a report developed by the “euro-mediterranean Network of economic studies (Emnes) on the participation of women in the labour market in the Mena region. The document has been prepared on the basis of data provided by the world Bank, as well as by other regional and international organizations including the Foundation Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM) – Italy), the international Institute of cooperatives Alphonse & Dorimène Desjardins, HEC Montréal (Canada), the Office of theory and application economic of the University of Strasbourg (Beta, France), the Centre for research in applied economics for development (Cread – Algeria). These figures are disappointing.
However, “substantial investments” in the education of women in the Mena region have been made and a “significant increase” their level of education emphasised, as observed by the report of Emnes. The percentage of the female population aged 25 years and over with tertiary education has increased for all countries of the region, as evidenced by the figures delivered by Emnes. In effect, on the observed period — from 1985 to 2010, it rose 0.51% to 6.60% for Algeria, 1.79% to 2.78% for Morocco, from 0.83% to 7.20% for Tunisia (the biggest increase), 1.79% to 2.78% for Jordan and, finally, of 1.16% to 4.56% for Egypt. The document adds that Tunisia has multiplied by seven the number of female students completing their graduate work between 1985 and 2010.
Better, in 2016, their enrolment rate and the number of graduates exceeded those of men. Always on the scale of the Mena region, women who manage to enter in the active life is often direct, is it mentioned in the report in question, toward jobs in the public sector. It is a safe choice ! This is the case, with shorter days than in the private sector, is added. The problem is that there are no jobs for all those who need it, the governments have fewer resources and offering few jobs. And what about the partnership feminine ? Only 4.7% of the heads of young companies, moroccan and 5.3% of their tunisian counterparts are women, compared to 6.1% in Europe, 12.8% in North America and even a high of 36.8% in Senegal (figures for 2017), it is stressed in this document, which notes that the lack of experience, self-confidence, risk aversion, the under-development of capital, business networks limited, financial dependence and access to financing are part of the constraints that hinder female entrepreneurship.
The cultural constraints with the housework, the care of the children assigned to women according to the social norms of the local, the management of the family budget are other sources of difficulties, there it is-he added. The financial dependency of the woman is the result, according to the report, inequality of inherited rights between man and woman. The lack of sharing of peer-to-peer that often characterizes the management of the family property, as well as the low access of the spouses to the property of housing is also problematic. To strengthen the presence of women in the world of work, the economists of Emnes suggest to first put an end to discrimination, an end to gender discrimination through legislative and administrative reforms that would ensure equal rights to economic resources, and productive.